Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2019, Page: 28-35
Characterization of Surface Water Components in Northern Sudan Using Raman Spectroscopy
Sufyan Sharafedin Mohammed, Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Institute of Laser, Khartoum, Sudan
Abdelmoneim Mohammed Awadelgied, Department of Engineering, Karary University, Khartoum, Sudan
Sohad Saad El Wakeel, Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Institute of Laser, Khartoum, Sudan
Ahmed Abubaker Mohamed, Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Institute of Laser, Khartoum, Sudan
Received: Mar. 31, 2019;       Accepted: May 5, 2019;       Published: May 31, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijfmts.20190501.13      View  169      Downloads  17
Abstract
Most population in northern Sudan are supplied by surface water sources directly from the Nile for drinking and irrigation purposes. As noted, most of them suffer from chronic diseases such as cancer and kidney failure. Water is expected to be a major and direct cause of these diseases, so the aim of this study is to identify the components of surface water in northern Sudan using Raman spectroscopy. Surface water Samples were collected from the Nile in different regions. The samples were analyzed at room temperature using Raman spectrometer model Horiba Lab RAM HR D3. The results showed that the samples contain different materials, beside the water, with different amounts; like: aromatic molecules, ester, salts, amides, phenol, alkynes and acids. From the results we have found that the water contains many toxic compounds such as cyanide, nitrate and phenol, which is one of the most important causes of cancer and renal failure. As well as can cause oxidize the iron atoms in hemoglobin from ferrous iron (II) to ferric iron (III), rendering it unable to carry oxygen. This process can lead to generalized lack of oxygen in organ tissue and a dangerous condition called methemoglobinemia.
Keywords
Raman Spectroscopy, Surface Water Characterization, Surface Water in Northern Sudan
To cite this article
Sufyan Sharafedin Mohammed, Abdelmoneim Mohammed Awadelgied, Sohad Saad El Wakeel, Ahmed Abubaker Mohamed, Characterization of Surface Water Components in Northern Sudan Using Raman Spectroscopy, International Journal of Fluid Mechanics & Thermal Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2019, pp. 28-35. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfmts.20190501.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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